Time. That vast rolling expanse into infinity. In the time before time… well two years ago I made a blueberry wine as it was reputedly a good wine to drink young. I happily guzzled it within a year of pitching the yeast and it was all very nice. One bottle was squirrelled away as I often do with a 10 litre batch and it has been happily maturing for an extra year. This was a pleasure to drink with a totally different character mellowing into a spicy rose with “cherryish” blueberry and nutty tastes with an amazingly clear slightly purpled hue. All the talk of drinking it young seems to be flim flam and patience is a virtue.
Sadly no pictures in the glass as five of us all had a glass. I have got a new batch a year into aging and an experimental blueberry and pomegranate started in primary… more of which next week.
I do have pictures of the Elderberry that has just been bottled. On the right a clear bottle that shows off the colour amazingly. Again I am going to leave it longer than poeple suggest. Most blogs say a year is adequate to leave itand I am not so sure about that. Started in September it has had a fair amount of time of bulk aging in the demijohn and all the CO2 seems to have off gassed naturally so no vacuum pumping needed. The 2015 vintage is still not mature enough to drink being too tannic although the quicker elder and black is good. For this the 2016 vintage pictured I tried to modify my approach to make it less tannic. The cold aqueous maceration was extended from 3 to 5 days and then the maceration in primary fermentation was reduced to 5 days before being pressed (well squeeeezed in the muslin bag) so that the skins could be removed earlier. The pre-fermentation cold soak allows colour and taste to be extracted but as there is no yeast present producing ethanol the tannin is mostly left. Only when ethanol is present from the fermenting yeast is the tannin content of the skins and seeds started to be macerated out. This means I can use the two differing macerations to extract the ratio of flavours I want.
The results are already evident as having a taste of the left overs lees the wine was fruitier tasting with far less harsher tannins present. It will still need at least two years to age, maybe even more but it seems a far better prospect that the 2015 version. I cannot say for sure why but far more tannin dropped out of suspension this year which you can see photographed from the bottom up. It could be from harvesting later or the warmer summer that seemed to create a bumper crop of elderberries.
I am hoping this year’s forage and fermenting will allow me enough berries to make two batches so I can compare and contrast methods. One will be may made with a 7 day cold soak and 5 day ferment of uncrushed berries before I press them. This will mean few of the elderberries are burst so the tannin rich seeds are never really exposed to the ethanol to extract their tannin. Seeds are said to have the harshest tasting tannins imparting the most bitter taste into wines. The other demijohn will have a 5 day cold soak and 4 day fermentation of crushed berries before I remove them. Both the skins and seed will be exposed to ethanol but for a shorter time.
Strawberry wine is a great wine for beginners and it has become a staple recipe for me. I have adapted it from the initial 17% hooch I first made into a still white wine, sparkling “champagne,” some vermouth experiments and now into my first composite wine with two fruits used with Strawberry and Rhubarb.
The classic strawberry wine is a quick and easy wine ideal for the beginner. Forgiving as a sweet or dry wine and quick to age to perfection. As I am now more confident with flavours, methods and throwing myself into experimenting with recipes I have decided to try and modify it to a slightly fuller rose rather than white wine. The first experiment was started last week with bananas added to bring a subtle fruitier weight to a purely strawberry wine with a more velvety mouth feel. This strawberry and rhubarb wine has two ideas to test out. The first is that rhubarb compliments strawberries as a classic taste combination creating a rounder top note, the second idea is that the raisins add a fuller base just like the bananas.
When making the strawberry wine with added body I thought that the fruitiness of the bananas would fight the rhubarb making a muddled wine with three fruits fighting for dominance. Using raisins I hope will compliment rather than battle the tartness of the rhubarb with less perfumed scents floating about in the final bottle.
Using two fruits in combination adds some complexity in logistics and recipe. Ideally strawberries and rhubarb are macerated with different methods so it is more work to prep before the yeast is even pitched. Strawberries require an aqueous maceration and rhubarb uses sugar to draw out the liquid as it dissolves. Both methods are used for the same reason to minimise bitter tastes being extracted from the fruit with only liquid being present when the yeast is eventually added. As the must is overwhelmingly liquid you have an easier life when this is in primary fermentation with little stirring needed compared to say blackberries that require a labour intensive stir four times a day!
I chose to use MA33 yeasts as it can tolerate the harsh Oxalic acid in rhubarb and convert much of it to softer tasting Malic acid. It had hell of a party and was exceptionally quick to ferment taking only four days in primary with a thick foam present for much of that time. Initially it was a grimy brown as the yeast was held with in it but as they yeast coalesced it started to sink leaving a clean white foam instead. I chose to mix the yeasty foam into the must so that it did not have any chance to oxidise. As I want the rhubarb to compliment the strawberry I used it in a 1:2 ratio with with 700 grams of rhubarb and 1400 grams of strawberries per British gallon of wine. There are no hard and fast rules for this and you can change this ratio to match your own taste. Some even make two wines of each fruit and blend them just before bottling.
STRAWBERRY AND HUBARB WINE – 4.5 L
Suitable yeasts – MA33 or other white wine yeasts
1200g firm strawberries
1kg sugar to 1.09SG
About 4 litres water
Juice of 1 lemon
Cup of strong tea
1 tsp yeast nutrient
Sachet of yeast
1. Chop the rubarb up into small chunks and pour over 1 kg of sugar. Stir it then cover. Leave for 3 days and stir twice a day to extract the juice into the sugar
2. On day two trim and wash your strawberries and mash thoroughly in a pan. Boil one litre of water then pour over 1 litre of boiling water (the other water can be set asside in a covered pan)
3. On day three chop the raisins roughly and boil in the remaining water. leave it covered red to cool.
4. Once the strawberries have puréed strain through sterilised muslin, then pour the now cooled “raisin water” through to extract the flavour. It can be stirred but do not squeeze the mush as this extracts bitter tastes
5. Stir in the rhubarb sugar into the must and remove the rhubarb with a slotted sterilised spoon. Adjust sugar level to 1.08 (11%ABV could be made into champagne too) or 1.09SG (13%ABV) Stir in the strong tea, lemon juice and yeast nutrient and the yeast and leave in primary to ferment. The primary fermentation vessel needs be big enough to contain the explosive fermentation as strawberries tend to foam a lot!
6. Rack after a month, then 2 months after that if needed
Can be drunk after 6 months of pitching the yeast, ready in nine and great after 12 but this will not last beyond 2 years.
Strawberry wine was the first home made wine that I got to drink. Being impatient for my elderflower wine to mature I made it to take advantage of the 6 – 9 month ageing rather than full 12 months for the elder flowers. It was more moon shine than wine as I had no hydrometer and as all British recipes always go for maximum alcohol I imagine it was about 17% abv. It got my parents in law absolutely spannered. I think it did anyway I was spannered too. Ms Gazette as well.
As I have become more refined I have been able to get a little more exacting in my recipes and methods. Strawberry wine is great as it can be sweet or absolutely dry and easily made into champagne…. well sparkling wine at the end of bulk ageing. Extracting the juice is nice and easy and after the initial maceration requires little work like other berry wines. It is quick to mature at nine months but best at a year old so suites a new brewer or one more experienced.
I am totally happy with the strawberry champagne I make as it is crisp and sharp with an unmistakable strawberry taste that is not overly pungent or too floral to be sickly. I say happy but its actually fucking great to open your own sparkling wine that costs about £3 to make and I personally think it better than the commercial version we used to drink on Ms Gazettes birthday.
The still wine although lovely still has room for improvement as it could have some extra body in my view. I have decided to experiment with banana added to create a more robust body. Banana is a recent idea that has been developed for country/fruit wine makers as it allows a more neutral taste than wine concentrates and raisins. The jury is out on how and where it can be used with some saying it is only good for tropical fruit, others for any berry based wines and others saying only white wines. As such I have no idea if this will work and I have a year to wait to a taste test so use the classic strawberry wine recipe below if you are the exacting type. Both will have advantages over many other recipes as it removes the fruit before any bitter after tastes can be extracted and forgoes any vigorous presses that squeeze out that bitterness.
If you do want to use banana you have to plan ahead as very ripe bananas are needed. Seriously they should be going black on the skins. Chop them into inch long chunks, skin and all and then pop into part or all of the water allocated to your recipe. Bring it to the boil, simmer for 15 minutes and then wait for the water to cool overnight. The pan should remain covered to stop any bacteria falling in and remove the chunks once it is nice and cool. Initially I was terrified by what I had made as the bananas look like HR Giger made some nightmare sausage rolls. The flesh swells out of the skin and I am glad I have no photos as they look freakishly bizarre bloated messes. The resulting water is a rich peaty brown colour. When this is added to your must it will discolour it but as most of the colour is particulates it starts to settle out and will not affect the final hue. The idea is that the poly saccharides – the long sugars give added mouth feel providing a more velty feel on the tongue and the “neutral” fruit taste compliments the tastes of your base fruit. At least that’s what I read…
EXPERIMENTAL STRAWBERRY WINE – 4.5 L
Suitable yeasts – Any champagne yeast like EC1118 or white wine yeasts like CY17 or SN9
2kg firm strawberries
2 very ripe bananas
1kg-ish of sugar to 1.09SG
About 4.5 litres boiled and cooled water
Juice of 2 lemons
Half cup of strong tea
1 tsp yeast nutrient
Sachet of yeast
1. Trim and wash the strawberries
2. Mash the strawberries with a potato masher, mix in most of the sugar in a litre of boiling water, cover and leave for a day or two until it pureés
3. Chop the bananas into inch cubes skin and all and drop into the rest of the water, bring to the boil and simmer for 15 minutes then leave to cool
4. Remove the banana chunks when the water is cold
5. Once the strawberries have puréed strain through sterilised muslin, then pour the now cooled banana water through it to extract all the strawberry flavour. It can be stirred but do not squeeze the mush as this extracts bitter tastes
5a. (optional) Add pectolaise and leave covered for 12 to 24 hours.
6. Adjust sugar level to 1.09SG, Stir in the strong tea, lemon juice and yeast nutrient and the yeast and leave in primary. The primary fermentation vessel needs be big enough to contain the explosive fermentation as strawberries tend to foam a lot!
7. Siphon into a demijohn when primary fermentation ends – this is usually very quick at 4 or 5 days,
8. Rack after a month, then 2 months after that if needed
Can be drunk after six months of pitching the yeast, ready in nine and great after 12 but this will not last beyond 2 years.
Just like Alien3 and Ms Gazette and I re-enacting that potters wheel scene in Ghost, home made wine sometimes does not work out.
Last April I set about making some dandelion champagne which I was oddly over excited and too eager to make. I know exactly where the problems arose. It is not that the recipe is bad or my work was poor. I simply harvested the dandelion heads too early… in the colder and wetter spring rather than waiting until a far warmer and dry summers day. I finally popped one open to test the water and it is somewhat… odd…
It has a dominant peppery taste with hints of lemon that while not unpleasant is not what I imagined and does not work with the expectations of a glass of white wine. It is quite nice as a face punchingly strong cider as it has more body and is cloudy. I never thought that I would eventually make some kind of turbo powered Babycham which is the closest taste I can think of – a drink that got the 1950s laid but has never been high on any ones home brew list.
It is now abundantly clear that things cannot be rushed when making wine. Wait for the correct time to harvest and don’t try to cram too many fermentations through your demijohns as I did. The flowers are obviously free so that is a consolation though I did have to pick 27 billion dandelion heads clean of their petals. If any one is interested in making dandelion wine the recipe is below. I imagine it tastes like summer in a glass.
In July I went to a pick-your-own farm and carried off 4.5kg of blackcurrants and 7ish months later I have just bottled it ready for 18 months of aging. The berries initially had a cold water maceration for 5 days before yeast and lemon juice were added to extract as much colour as I could.
This Gentleman’s Ribena is surprisingly light in colour with a very clear wine being produced. I was expecting it to be far more like the deep opaque reds of Elderberry wine but this allows light through and it really looks good in the glass. The taste still has a while to mature but it is very pleasing even at this young age, while there is a definite blackcurrant taste it has retreated from the overly cordial sensation when it was initially pressed. Compared to my blackberry wine the fruit is far less pronounced with a rounder edge to it. Mouth feel is good and suites the darker rosé appearance… can you get a dark rosé? Acidity seems spot on and as it has oak I am expecting a light but decently complex wine.
As I have not make this before I have bottled totally dry and I may sweeten per bottle when I do eventually drink it. There was a worry I could over do the sugar and simply push it back to being Ribena with alcohol.
This year I will certainly ferment another 10 litre batch and imagine it will be a fixture every year. As I can harvest the fruit in July it is the first red wine I can make in the year and means I do not have the blackberry, elderberry and elder and black wines bunched up with it when preparing the fruit and monitoring through the fermentation.
First pop of the elderberry wine has occurred and my views are mixed. This was made in 2015 and it obviously needs more time to age – I seem to make wine that need longer than some recipes suggest. The blackberry wine really hit its stride at 18 months rather than the 12 that recipes talk of. This is no worry and the best ingredient in wine making is patience. Elderberry is more like a grape so will similarly need to more like a grape so I may open another bottle at 24 months or even later.
Currently the elder taste is only starting to show through the tannin which is still high and will continue to mellow. With the 2016 recipe I shortened the maceration to 5 days rather than leaving the fruit on the pulp for 7. It had a noticeable difference when I racked and I may shorten this further in 2017 to only 3 days. As elder skins are thick they make up a comparatively high amount of the total fruit. These skins are high in tannin and it is extracted by the rising ethanol as fermentation occurs. Using the cold maceration process and moving the pulp towards a more aquious extraction and pressing earlier should reduce tannin content.
The 2016 vintage seems to have had better fruit that I could forage and a better growing season so I have a better base ingredient from the outset. Currently it is undergoing malolactic fermentation and I will stabilise this with campden and potassium sorbate so that back sweetening can occur and the flavour is complete in the bottle. The 2015 vintage was bottled totally dry to give me some ability to adjust what I was doing but back sweetening it in the glass really helped to bring the fruit flavours forward. In 2017 I may also invest in a heat pad to see if a slightly higher temperature may help maintain fruit flavours.
Beats by Dre are mega expensive bass boosting earmuffs worn by annoying people on the Tube. Beets… sorry beetroot is an unfairly maligned root vegetable that I hope will make some great wine in a years time. Unlike Beats headphones beetroot is cheap… and plentiful at this time of year with nice wee ones perfect for wine making that will be sweet rather than the woody behemoths later in the season.
Scanning the interwebs there were a number of variations and ideas about beetroot wine. Some said it could be drunk a few months after fermentation and others after a year. The recipes ranged from simple mounds of beetroot to the more spiced mulled style wine with cardamom, cloves or ginger. This is the only wine I have ever seen that can have demerera sugar instead of processed white sugar that all other fruit or vegetable wines use. I imagine this can pair well with the slight malt taste of the beetroot and I may try this another time. There was also down right odd beer-wine hybrid with hops and marjoram that looked intriguing but was ultimately rejected – where the hell can you buy fresh marjoram?
I want a full bodied wine with some vinocity so have 2.2kg of beetroot and 100g of raisins which is more than some recipes, sugar is high in the beet so only 650g of sugar was needed to be added to get it to a Start Gravity of 1.09. The yeast was SN9 to help build body from the vegetable base as well as some tea to pump it up too. With various recipes the acid added ranged from traditional lemon juice or citric acid to less usual ideas. I had a good tip about three oranges and their zest with 12 peppercorns added for a neutral spice and depth of taste (credit to u/mriguy) but this was after I started making it. I chose to use the juice of limes as the acid source as some recipes recommend to compliment the beetroot taste rather than fight it. I might use these ideas in a new parsnip wine recipe next year.
Fermentation is nothing short of violent and quick. The yeast seems very happy to party hard and in only a few days the taste has changed from vegetal to a riper berry like flavour that is rich and full. This will surely further mellow into a surprising, slightly malty wine, probably suited to a little back sweetening just before bottling.
Beetroot has too annoying colour properties as it stains everything blood red like a scene from a Dario Argento film and the wine is photosensitive so ferment and store in the dark so it does not go murky brown.
BEETROOT WINE – 4.5 LITRES
650g sugar to 1.09SG
Juice of 3 limes
Strong mug of tea
BEFORE YOU START COVER EVERYTHING FROM THE BEETROOT JUICE AS IT STAINS EVERYTHING BLOOD RED!
1. Weigh and then wash the beetroot to remove any soil. Remove the woody tops the then chop into small chunks – skin and all and place in the 4.5litres of cold water with the raisins.
2. Bring to the boil in a covered pan and simmer for 45 minutes until the beetroot is soft but not mushy. Leave in the cooling water for 2 hours for flavour to be extracted.
3. Remove the now unneeded beetroot from the water and allow the liquid to cool, add pectolaise and leave for 12 to 24 hours in the covered pan to destroy pectin.
4. Add the sugar, juice of 3 limes and tea and stir in thoroughly then add the yeast and nutrient. Stir in after 15 minutes as it rehydrates.
5. Leave in primary and stir twice a day until fermentation starts to slow.
6. Transfer to an air locked secondary fermentation and rack after 5 weeks and then 10 weeks after that. Keep the wine in the dark as it is photosensitive and will discolour if left in the light.
Bottle and leave to mature for a year. Serve with out telling victims it is made from beetroot!
Freshly corked bottles of wine are usually left upright for a few days to allow the corks to swell and give a firm seal around the bottle neck. After that they can be layed on their side for a good age in your cellar (the cupboard under the stairs) The very last process is to add a shrink cap to the bottle to help keep the cork from drying out, decicating and letting all your hard work leak over your floor.
I used to use a hair dryer to shrink the caps until a kind soul pointed me towards using hot water. All you need is the correct amount of water to just reach the submerged cap. Get it to a boil and then remove from the heat, plonk you bottle in, push down to the base of the pan and count to “two.”
Hey presto you have beautifully capped wine that looks all sophisulcated.
Orange wine is a term for a white wine where the grapes are left macerating longer than usual so that the colour becomes deeper and taste changes to be more honey like. This is not that. This orange wine is a wine made with oranges.
I am at a loss as to what to make this winter so I have decided on Seville orange and also a beetroot wine in a few weeks time. Seville oranges are only in season for a short period but there is no reason this cannot be a used for other citrus wines changing the approximate ratio of fruit. The citrus taste goes well with Thai food, sea food and pork so that will keep Ms Gazette happy when we pop one open in a years time… or perhaps not as many people hate it.
Many people just use fruit juice but I imagine the zest gives a more interesting flavour. Some omit the raisins and others substitute it for banana to give body instead. Check back in a year to see how it looks and tastes. The colour is apparently photosensitive so if you are making it keep it covered in darkness as much as you can even when bottled.
SEVILLE ORANGE WINE RECIPE 4.5 Litres
18 seville oranges
800g sugar (approximate to 1.09SG)
Half a cup of strong tea
3.5l of water
If waxed wash the oranges and then use a peeler to zest half with as little pith as possible. Boil the zest for 15 minutes and throw in the raisins when it has 5 minutes to go. Leave to cool.
Juice all the oranges and the two lemons and pour into the cooled water then add 1tsp of pectolaise to break down the pectin and leave for 24hours.
Strain the liquid and then add the half cup of tea and top up to 4.5 litres with boiled then cooled water.
Stir in about the sugar to get it to 1.09SG then add the yeast and nutrient.
As no solids are present no stirring is really needed. Leave in primary fermentation and when it starts to slow rack into secondary with an air lock.
Rack when fermentation ends in about 5 weeks and again 10 weeks afterwards. Subsequent racks are only needed if there is a lot of sediment forming.
Wine making can be a daunting prospect with unique terms thrown around, competing explanations and conflicting ideas of what must and must not be done. Wine making is a science for those who work in an industry and an art for amateurs. The first rule of Wine Club is there are no rules… well there are two. Keep things clean and keep things air locked apart from that its anarchy.
Making wine is all down to yeast. These little critters when locked into an airtight container anaerobically respire breaking down sugar into ethanol (you want this – it gets you drunk!) and carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide bubbles through the wine and out the airlock with some partially dissolving. As they do this they feed on minerals in the fruit and water and divide and grow. As this happens colonies of the partying yeast form and sink to the bottom all the while producing more alcohol until they consume all the sugar and start to get stressed and die away. This along with the fruit pulp must be removed periodically in a process called racking. The more you rack over the months the more sediment you remove until you have a clear wine. After a month or so yeast will have done its work and the wine ages with tannins from the fruit aging and mellowing and acids may change from harsh to softer tastes. There are no rules on how long a wine ages and it is personal taste and the limits of your recipe that determine it. Once aged the wine is possibly stabilised and back sweetened with sugar then bottled.
Planning is paramount. Have you got space, a few bits of kit, a kitchen and a forgiving partner that will to drink your swill and lie how good it is? Have you got an idea of the wine you want to make? It could be from a kit in which case stop reading this knit-wittery and follow the instructions. You could buy fruit or forage for it, or grow the more exotic ingredients yourself. Some people try to use as little “chemicals” as possible. Some want small batches of exotic tastes, others want big batches of uniform wine they love.
If you are a total novice think small. Get two 4.5L demijohns to make six bottles of wine. Choose a recipe that you know is easy and quick to test things out:
Your basic kit will probably grow as you make more and more wine. You may start with a one gallon/4.5L demijohn but buy bigger two gallon or five gallon demis when you get more confident. Investment in that original one is not wasted as you can test recipes, make small runs of expensive ingredients or bulk age in it.
In my view the absolute minimum kit you need is:
1 x Brew bucket for primary fermentation
2 x Demijohns to hold and ferment you wine in secondary fermentation
2 x bungs and airlocks to secure your wine from oxidising
1 x Auto Syphon to move wine when racking
1 x Hydrometer to measure sugar
Scales / Jug / Ladle / teaspoons
Bottle brush and sponges/cloths
Corking machine and corks just before you bottle.
ADDITIVES AND SANITISERS
Yeast nutrient feeds the yeast with essential minerals as they grow during fermentation
Sanitisers like Chemipro Oxi can sanitise containers and campden tablets the fruit and water when making wine. These are not “cheating” and many have been used for centuries.
Stabiliser is added just before bottling to “kill” the yeast (actually the yeast stops dividing) so the wine does not ferment in the bottle and make it explode everywhere… walls… ceiling… floor… It also protects from possible oxidation in the bottle.
Pectic Enzymes breaks down unwanted pectin to make the wine smoother and less “jammy” if the fruit is high in it.
Base fruit to provide the back bone of the taste.
Possibly grape extract, raisins or bananas to add body to none grape like fruit.
Sugar to feed the yeast and make alcohol.
Possibly acid in the form of citric acid powder or lemon juice to add flavour and create the correct pH acidity level for the yeast to thrive.
Possibly tannin as tannin powder, breakfast tea or grape like fruit skins.
Yeast to ferment it all.
Adjuncts like spices, herbs of complimentary fruit may also be in some recipes added at varying stages like Vermouth.
The recipe is intended to create a well-balanced wine. This is determined by personal preference like the desired alcohol and style of the wine you have in mind. The base ingredient like blackberries, elderberries or oak leaves have certain characteristics to emphasise and yeast is important in bringing this about. Grape wine is the daddy of all wine, a bench mark that we all know the taste and texture of. Fruit wines are beholden to these benchmarks and the holy trinity of tastes – sweetness (or lack of), acidity and tannin.
Grapes have all these tastes present and the component chemicals to create the phelonics and esters that create complex tastes but fruit wine will generally need these as supplementary additives.
Easy – common table sugar feeds to yeast and can also provide the sweet taste when bottled. Use white sugar as it is taste neutral compared to brown and demerara sugars. The only wine recipe I have seen using brown sugar is beetroot wine
This is the bitter taste present in mainly red wine (white has some but not as a dominant taste) that creates the full taste and velvety mouth feel. Tannin is present in some fruit skins and seeds like elderberries but is absent in many fruit like strawberries or elderflowers. A half cup of tea or tannin extract provides this flavour. Over the aging of the wine tannin alters, with some binding together and dropping as sediment. Yiu can get subtle oak tannins added as oak chips while aging too. Tannin is often feared but it is simply something that needs care and attention as it is necessary in wine.
Acid is present in all fruit but to varying degrees. In advanced recipes you can test the acidity and adjust to get the perfect 4.55pH for the yeast to thrive. Simple recipes guess the levels of acidity of the base fruit and add a set amount of extra acid as lemon juice or citric acid. Gooseberries have acidity levels that are bang on the money and rhubarb may even need it reducing through precipitated chalk as an additive.
At the most basic level plan your recipe at the correct time of year to have the fruit available. Wine making is seasonal, and using fruit out of season may be expensive.
First you must clean your equipment washing it thoroughly. This basic wash is like cleaning plates after a meal removing grease, dust and dirt. Just use a standard detergent like Fairly liquid. After washing the dirt it is time to sanitise it all thoroughly. Sanitising is using heat or chemicals to kill bacteria on surfaces to minimise spoilage during the long aging process. Boiling kills all bacteria if done for 15 minutes but not all kit is suitable for this. Metal ladles are fine but glass demijohns could shatter and the food grade plastic on a brew bucket could degrade. For these containers use a chemical sanitiser like Chemipro or Star San. They all vary in use so read the instructions and never mix them! Using a no rinse sanitiser is best as this means boiled and cooled water is not needed to rinse anything.
As kit is drying on a sanitised bench all ingredients need measuring, some ingredients need chopping like quince, destemming like elderberries or destoning like peaches. Water will certainly need sanitising either with campden or through boiling (and cooling) and you may need to prepare and sanitise your ingredients which varies from recipe to recipe.
Base fruits need to be prepared by differing methods to allow flavours to be extracted. Quince and parsnip are boiled for 15 minutes to break down the heavy structure, blackberries are blanched with boiling water to burst skins and blueberries may be sanitised with campden as they cold soak for three days to extract colour and flavour from the thick skins. All recipes vary and people often have competing ideas as to what is best. It’s your choice but choose wisely!
Once the fruit is prepared and in clean water in your primary fermenter additives like pectin can be added if needed. If you are using pectolaise needs between 12 and 24 hours to do its magic destroying the unwanted pectin.
Tannin and acid are added and mixed thoroughly with a clean ladle. Sugar can then be added. At its crudest level pouring 1kg or sugar into one gallon of water will provide enough sugar to the yeast. This takes no account of how alcoholic you want your wine, the sugar available from the fruit or your taste preference. A hydrometer is invaluable in my view. This little buoy floats on the water giving a reading of the sugar dissolved. Water would be 1.00SG (specific gravity) but ambient sugar in the fruit may make it float higher to say 1.02SG, adding more sugar makes it float higher and higher until the desired level of 1.08 or 1.09SG. This means there is enough sugar for a dry wine with 13% ABV. If you left the hydrometer in your wine you would see it gradually drop over a few days as alcohol is fermented. Alcohol is less dense than sugar water so it cannot be lifted so high. After a month or so an eventual 0.99SG may be seen which is a totally dry wine.
Yeast and nutrient is the last to be added. Easiest method is to sprinkle on top and then stir in after 30 minutes. This provides a little time for the yeast to aerate. Once dissolved the yeast will take between 2 to 48 hours to activate and start to bubble. Primary fermentation is a nebulous concept but is when the yeast is most active creating 2/3 of the alcohol. It can last for 4 to 14 days and as the fermentation is so vigorous it keeps itself airtight in effect. Once this slows it is needed to be transferred into secondary fermentation with a fully working air lock though. Just as the carbon dioxide protects the must from oxygenation so too does the fermenters lid from bacteria and even fruit flies. If solid fruit is used the must should be stirred from one to four times a day, this agitates it allowing the juice to be extracted. If the wine is purely liquid some simply leave it covered.
The carbon dioxide given off by the happy food laden yeast provides a protective blanket to stop oxygenation but as it slows the protection from oxygen lessens and your wine needs to be racked into secondary fermentation. Being thorough a hydrometer reading would be between 1.03 and 1.01SG when you decide to rack from primary fermentation to secondary fermentation. Racking is needed to both transfer into an air tight demijohn and away from the fruit pulp. Fruit flavours will be extracted over a few days and few fruit will give anything up after seven, this is also the time that any rouge bacteria could start to break the fruit down into bad tastes and infection. This initial racking removes the wine from what is called the “gross lees” as in French for “big lees”
When racking your autosyhpon, demijohn and bungs and stoppers must be sanitised to prevent contamination just as kit was at the start of the fermentation process. The autosyphon is pumped and uses gravity to push the wine into a lower deminjohn. Muslin/cheese cloth can be used to catch any solids that may come through. Racking is perhaps the most problematic phase of wine making. You could allow it too much time in contact with air and oxidise it or infection could fall in from ambient bacteria floating in the air. You will lose wine through accidents on more than one occasion and it is messy – it is a fact of life sadly!
While racking, oxidising may in small quantities benefit the wine as it promotes carbon dioxide to be made and bubble away from your wine as it ages and some yeast actively need oxygenation such as MA33 which makes rhubarb and gooseberry wine.
Once in your new demijohn top up the liquid so it reaches the shoulder of the demijohn, minimising air contact and maximising your volume of wine. There are many ideas on how to top up – sterilised water, glass marbles or a similar prepared wine. Here are no hard and fast rules but I always simply use clean water. A sanitised bung and airlock are then popped onto the demijohn to keep air and infection out. As the carbon dioxide bubbles up it pushes the natural air out the top. To make it secure from infection pop ¼ of a campden tablet into the water of the airlock. Some even add one crushed campden tablet to the wine to ensure it is sanitised. This is personal choice and the sulphur dioxide given off by the dissolving tablet could over power if it is used too much.
Some wine is inevitably left behind in the old demijohn and is a casualty of war. You cannot transfer 100% of the liquid. This is not waste but a natural by product that all wine makers have. Most recipes account for the topping up of this missing volume too. The wine can be reused if you have a few fruit flies attracted by your wine making skills. Drop it into a glass and add some washing up liquid. The flies are attracted to the welcoming drink and get trapped in it and drown… in the most fun way possible. This means no pests contaminating the actual wine you want for yourself. This old wine also gives an initial tasting and as you get more confident you can predict and tweak recipes as you go.
Your wine has now entered secondary fermentation in the air-locked environment. It may not bubble for a few hours or even days but this is not a worry – a lot of yeast was removed so the colonies need to acclimatise and repopulate to their new home. As alcohol is building they are fighting its effect and slowing down. Less alcohol will be made in this phase and more slowly. Fermentation will slow down and eventually stop when all the sugar is exhausted after 30 to 40 days. It is important to note that the yeast is not dead. It could hang on for another two years and if sugar is reintroduced they will reactivate again.
With the slowing processes fermentation ends and the wine enters the aging process. Heavy particles fall out of suspension and drop to the bottom as sediment, over time less carbon dioxide is present as it escapes as gas and the finer and finer sediment will drop. Further racking but not from the “gross lees” but “lees” will be needed but this is open to debate as to when and how often. Personally I time my racking at five/six weeks then 10 weeks after that and every 12 after that if needed. Other people use different criteria – if you have more than 13mm of sediment or religiously at every 2 months in age. They will all serve the same purpose of removing sediment so that it does not rot and produce sulphur dioxide and promote bacterial growth.
As well as dead yeast other components will fall out your wine such as starches and tannin, some pectin haze and minute fruit solids. All the while this is happening the wine is changing chemically with tannins combining and mellowing, acids changing from malic to lactic acid, and other esters and phenols (taste and aroma compounds) being created from the fruit juices.
It is important to bulk age wine in demijohns and the longer the better. A wine should not be bottled for at least six months minimum after the yeast is pitched. The longer it ages in a demijohn with an air lock the longer it has to expel carbon dioxide naturally. Carbon dioxide creates a more acidic taste and makes the fruit flavours dull compared to a more mature wine. Carbon dioxide can be artificially extracted to aid this. Two options are open to the amateur – using a vacuum pump to pull the gas out, or to use a wine whip to mix it out. This degassing process is one of the last to be done before bottling a wine if you do decide to do it. If aged for nine months you may not even ned to artificially degas as it till naturally escape over time.
Other processes are “chipping” or “oaking” the wine and stabilisation and back sweetening. Chipping/oaking is adding oak chips to simulate a barrel creating a mature well rounded taste – it can take from seven to 60 days and just requires sanitised oak chips to be dropped into the demijohn – as usual it is personal taste that determines the duration and amount of oak chips added and how toasted they are. Stabilising wine adds one tsp of potassium sorbate per gallon to “kill” the yeast. In effect it actuality it stops them dividing and multiplying to reactivate fermentation. The stabilising solution is mixed into the wine and it is stirred once a day for four days. If you want a sweet wine back sweetening has to be done after stabilisation as you do not want a second (note “second” not “secondary”) fermentation to begin and burst you bottles! This is optional to your taste and some wines like strawberry or quince can be left absolutely bone dry, they can be sweetened though and some wines like blackberry need a little sugar to highlight the fruit tastes and down play acidity
After all process are done the wine can be bottled into you guessed it sanitised bottles. Cork them with real cork and store them on their sides to keep them wet and secure in a cool stable environment. Congratulations you have made wine – all you have to do now is keep from opening it so that it matures to perfection. Once opened adjust your recipes for next year to perfect them, keep notes on the aging processes and look up new version of recipes or processes that can be incorporated.